Journal Basic Info
- Impact Factor: 1.995**
- H-Index: 8
- ISSN: 2474-1647
- DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647
- Gastroenterological Surgery
- Emergency Surgery
- Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
- Breast Surgery
- Gynecological Surgery
- General Surgery
- Minimally Invasive Surgery
- Plastic Surgery
Citation: Clin Surg. 2021;6(1):3219.Research Article | Open Access
Impact of Varicocele and Varicocele Surgery on Semen Quality, Erectile Function, and Serum Hormone Levels
Department of Urology, Hanusch Hospital, Austria
Karl Landsteiner University for Health Sciences, Austria
Department of Urology, Donauspital Vienna, Austria
Introduction: The aim of our study was to analyze the impact of varicocele and varicocele surgery on testosterone level, semen quality, and erectile function.
Methods: Our study included 265 infertile males with varicocele. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 (193) patients who did not receive surgery, Group 2 (72 patients) who were operated on according to the Palomo procedure and Group 3 (28 patients), who acted as a control group without a varicocele. All patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function IIEF-5 (German version) and underwent semen analysis. Serum testosterone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) were measured at inclusion into the study and after surgery.
Results: The IIEF-5 scores in groups 1 and 2 were 21.01 ± 2.2; and 21.74 ± 1 respectively, and the resulting t-test for equality of variance was significant (p<0.0001). Total testosterone level in groups 1 and 2 were 3.16 ± 0.37, and 3 ± 0.01 respectively, and the resulting t-test for equality of variance was significant (p<0.0001). The results of the semen analysis were better in group 2 (after surgery) (37.5%, p<0.001) in comparison to Group 1. Interestingly, pre-operative serum testosterone levels were lower in patients with later improvement of semen analysis (p=0.05). Body mass index (p=0.8), pre-operative serum FSH (p=0.9), LH (p=0.2), were similar in both groups.
Conclusion: Semen quality improved in 37.5% of our patients after varicocele surgery. Erectile dysfunction improved partly after varicocele surgery. Moreover, these improvements are not necessarily correlated. Our study reported that a lower pre-operative serum testosterone level might be a possible indicator for successful surgical outcome.
Erectile Dysfunction; International Index of Erectile Function; Follicle stimulating hormone; Luteinizing hormone; Oligo-astheno-teratospermia-syndrome
Cite the article
Al-Ali BM, Persad E, Eredics K. Impact of Varicocele and Varicocele Surgery on Semen Quality, Erectile Function, and Serum Hormone Levels. Clin Surg. 2021; 6: 3219..