Journal Basic Info

  • Impact Factor: 1.995**
  • H-Index: 8
  • ISSN: 2474-1647
  • DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647
**Impact Factor calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Please contact us for any more details.

Major Scope

  •  Gynecological Surgery
  •  Obstetrics Surgery
  •  Colon and Rectal Surgery
  •  Cardiovascular Surgery
  •  Bariatric Surgery
  •  Plastic Surgery
  •  Minimally Invasive Surgery
  •  Pediatric Surgery


Citation: Clin Surg. 2017;2(1):1483.Research Article | Open Access

Outcome of External Genital Reconstruction after Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): A Pilot in Selected Patients in the Netherlands

Karim RB and Dekker JJML

Department of Plastic Surgery, Kliniek Amstelveen, Amstelveen, Netherlands
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands

*Correspondance to: Karim RB 

 PDF  Full Text DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647.1483


Background: The demand for reconstruction of external genitalia after Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is increasing as a result of the empowerment of migrated and naturalized women from Africa and the Middle East. We present our procedures and the outcome of our selection and surgery.Patients and
Methods: From 2010 to 2015, 41 women presented with FGM. All underwent wellspecified patient selection before operation. Clitoroplasty according to Foldes was performed in selected patients. These patients were followed-up for 13.4 months and post-operatively assessed.Results: Sixteen of the 41 women (39%) were not operated because they had unrealistic expectation about the outcome of surgery (n=11) or had comorbidities that had to be dealt first (n=5). One woman chooses to have only her Bartholin cyst corrected after pre-opeartive consultation. Clitoroplasty was performed in the remaining 24 women. Post-operatively, we observed no major and only 3 minor post-operative complications. Nineteen of these 24 women were satisfied with the surgery and had a better self-esteem after surgery. Three of the remaining five women were lost for follow-up and two were disappointed with the surgical outcome.Conclusion: External genital reconstruction after well-specified preoperative selection leads too predictable results with minor surgical complications. A better self-esteem achieved by minor surgery should not be a contra-indication for reconstructing these women.


Reconstruction; Female genital mutilation; Clitoroplasty

Cite the article

Karim RB, Dekker JJML. Outcome of External Genital Reconstruction after Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): A Pilot in Selected Patients in the Netherlands. Clin Surg. 2017; 2: 1483.

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