Case Report

Lobular Capillary Hemangioma of Vocal Cord in an Adult

Burcu Ozturk1, Fatma Kamile Gunduz1 and Eren Altun2*
1Balikesir University School of Medicine, Balikesir/Turkey
2Department of Medical Pathology, Balikesir University School of Medicine, Balikesir/Turkey

*Corresponding author: Eren Altun, Department of Medical Pathology Balikesir, Balikesir University School of Medicine, Balıkesir, Turkey

Published: 30 Apr, 2018
Cite this article as: Ozturk B, Gunduz FK, Altun E. Lobular Capillary Hemangioma of Vocal Cord in an Adult. Clin Surg. 2018; 3: 1966.


Lobular Capillaries Hemangiomas (LCH) are benign vascular lesions of the skin and mucosal membranes that are common in the head and neck region. Although the etiology is not completely known, factors such as trauma, smoking and abuse of voice are thought to play a role in the emergence of this disease. The localization of these lesions in the vocal cord is rare, which is common in the oral cavity. In this case report, we presented an adult patient with localized LCH in the right vocal cord and discussed the literature (Pubmed, Google Academic, Dergipark) that can be reached between 2003-2017 on LCH.
Keywords: Vocal Cord; Larynx; Lobular Capillaries Hemangioma


Lobular Capillary Hemangiomas (LCH) are benign vascular lesions of the skin and mucosal membranes that are common in the head and neck region [1]. The etiology is not fully known but it is thought that factors such as trauma, smoking and vocal abuse play a role in the emergence of this disease [2]. Pyogenic granuloma was first described by Poncet and Dor in 1897 [3].It was previously described as pyogenic granuloma and later described as LCH because it histologically separated from the granulation tissue by the lobular arrangement of capillaries [2,4]. LCHs are benign lesions of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by pedunculated, rapid growth, hyperemia and bleeding [5]. Some etiologic factors are unknown, but some of the factors that have been implicated in the formation of this lesion depending on the region of LCH are: gingival and periodental infections due to poor oral hygiene; prolonged endotracheal intubation and related or other causes of trauma; smoking, gastric reflux, vocal abuse, pregnancy, some drugs [2,5]. The most common localization is oral cavity. Localization of the larynx and vocal cord has been shown in the literature. In this article, a 59 year old male patient with right vocal cord LCH was presented and the literature was discussed.

Case Presentation

59-year-old male patient was admitted to ear, nose and throat polyclinic of Balikesir University Hospital with the complaints of hoarseness and decrease of vocal quality for 2 months. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a 4 × 4 mm granuloma-like tissue in the posterior 1/3 of the right vocal cord. As a result of laryngoscopy, the lesion in the posterior arytenoid region was thought to be a granulation, polyp and mass and it was totally excised together with the stalk. Biopsy material sent to pathology laboratory. Pathological macroscopic examination of the biopsy revealed a smooth surface with grayish white color of 1 × 0.6 cm in size. On the microscopic examination vascular structures, subacute inflammatory cell infiltration and edema were observed under the ulcerated multilamellar epithelium on the surface (Figure 1 and 2). In light of these findings, the lesion on right vocal cord was diagnosed as LCH. After the operation, the patients with stable vitals and good general condition were discharged.


LCH is a benign lesion with rapid growth pattern of skin and mucous membranes. These lesions, which are mostly hemorrhagic, often have ulcers on their surface. Hemangiomas are commonly encountered as childhood benign skin lesions. These lesions have spontaneous regrowth teeth period between 18 months and 3 years. Likewise, LCH in pregnancy may regress spontaneously after pregnancy. LCH is most common in infantile, especially in girls and in the subglottic region. Adults are rare but men are more frequent than females. Adult LCH is distinguished from infantile by being cavernous hemangioma and they are usually small lesions [6]. Although endoscopic excision is preferred most frequently in patients with LCH localized in the vocal cord, in addition to surgical treatments such as curettage, cauterization, CO2 laser, tracheostomy; other therapies such as anti-reflux therapy, sound therapy, cryotherapy, argon plasma coagulation are also applied. Depending on the localization, size and prognosis of the lesion, clinical follow-up is recommended besides these treatments [2,3,5]. Clinical manifestations in LCH cases change depending on the location and size of the lesion. Some of these clinical manifestations are; hoarseness, aphonia, decrease of voice quality, dyspnea, wheezing, throat sensitivity, dysphagia, dry cough, stridor, hemoptysis. Adult laryngeal LCH is often caused by aphonia and dyspnea [6]. Hemangiomas, angiofibromas, histiocytoma, hemangioendothelioma, hemangiopericytoma, angiosarcoma, angiomyolipoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, granulomatous infections, hyperplasia, varicosities are considered in the differential diagnosis [2,4,5,7]. Histopathological examination plays a key role in the diagnosis of LCH. However, the region where the lesion is located may bleed in the process of biopsy [8-12]. It is a major complication. Histopathologic and clinical findings should be taking into consideration for differentiation between hemangioma and LCHs. Histopathologically, this distinction is made by lobular growth patterned vascular proliferation, fibromyxoid stroma, ulcerationbased acute inflammation. Again, the absence of histopathologic atypia is a guide for the differentiation of neoplasms [13-18]. The main complaint of the patient in the laryngeal tuberculosis which be considered differential diagnosis of LCH is hoarseness. Histopathological and microbiological examination should be done to distinguish LCH. LCH cases are rare in tracheal and laryngeal regions [19-21]. We found 25 cases in the accessible English and Turkish literature (2003-2017) (Table 1). A 9 of them are vocal cord localized cases. It is consistent with the literature that 9 of the patients are woman and 16 of them are male. Patients are widely distributed between the ages of 72 and neonatal, 4 of 25 cases are neonatal [22]. Except patients who are treated with single or multiple treatments in 1 case, only follow-up of the patient was found appropriate [23]. Endoscopic excisions in 16 of 25 cases brought to our attention.

Table 1

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Table 1
Lobular Capillary Hemangioma Case Reports in the Trachea and Larynx.

Figure 1 and 2

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Figure 1 and 2
On the microscopic examination vascular structures, subacute inflammatory cell infiltration and edema were observed under the ulcerated multilamellar epithelium on the surface.


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