Journal Basic Info

  • Impact Factor: 1.995**
  • H-Index: 8
  • ISSN: 2474-1647
  • DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647
**Impact Factor calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Please contact us for any more details.

Major Scope

  •  Gynecological Surgery
  •  Pediatric Surgery
  •  Orthopaedic Surgery
  •  General Surgery
  •  Breast Surgery
  •  Obstetrics Surgery
  •  Surgical Oncology
  •  Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery


Citation: Clin Surg. 2021;6(1):3125.Research Article | Open Access

Neuromodulation Therapies for Intractable Angina: A Review

Patel S1* and Mammis A2

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, USA 2 Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, USA

*Correspondance to: Saarang Patel 

 PDF  Full Text DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647.3125


Background: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) are neuromodulation therapies that have shown to be effective as treatments for the care of Intractable Angina. In addition, Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB), although not considered a neuromodulation therapy, has proven to be a successful interventional therapy. Objective: With the minimal research studying the use of neuromodulation therapies to treat intractable angina, this review looks to summarize the pre-existing data published and see which neuromodulation therapies have proven to be successful in treating patients with Intractable Angina. Methods: A literature search was done on PubMed, Google Scholars, and ResearchGate to discover 3 different neuromodulation therapies that have shown to be effective in the treatment of intractable angina. Factors that were searched for include safety, complications, and the application of the neuromodulation therapy. Results: 12 articles were analyzed with 3 three different neuromodulation therapies. For Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS), 19 patients were implanted for SCS and the results found that both admission rate and hospital stay time were lower after SCS (0.97 vs. 0.27) and (8.3 days vs. 2.5 days). For Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), results have shown reduced frequency of anginal attacks, and increased work capacity. For Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB), the mean pain relief duration was 3.5 weeks. SBG has proven to be an alternative neuromodulation invasive strategy for the treatment of intractable angina. Conclusion: Through the various articles analyzed, it?s clear that TENS, SCS, and SGB have proven to be both safe and effective in treatment of intractable angina. Although the patient populations tested are low, the patients who did undergo treatment have proven to be effective. Through more trials and larger patient population sizes, the usage of TENS, SCS, and SGB can be better supported for their effectiveness and safety.


Neuromodulation; Angina; Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; Spinal Cord Stimulation; Stellate Ganglion Block

Cite the article

Patel S, Mammis A. Neuromodulation Therapies for Intractable Angina: A Review. Clin Surg. 2021; 6: 3125..

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