Journal Basic Info

  • Impact Factor: 1.995**
  • H-Index: 8
  • ISSN: 2474-1647
  • DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647
**Impact Factor calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Please contact us for any more details.

Major Scope

  •  Vascular Surgery
  •  Endocrine Surgery
  •  General Surgery
  •  Minimally Invasive Surgery
  •  Cardiovascular Surgery
  •  Thoracic Surgery
  •  Gastroenterological Surgery
  •  Robotic Surgery


Citation: Clin Surg. 2019;4(1):2365.Research Article | Open Access

Focal Dystonia and Botulinum Toxin: Our Experience with IncobotulinumtoxinA

Marinella Tommaselli, Leonello Tacconi, Giulia Mazzon and Paolo Manganotti

Department of Medical and Clinical Neurology, Surgical Sciences and Health Sciences, University Hospital Trieste, Italy
Department of Medical and Unit of Neurosurgery, Surgical Sciences and Health Sciences, University Hospital Trieste, Italy

*Correspondance to: Marinella Tommaselli 

 PDF  Full Text DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647.2365


Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) represent the gold standard therapy for focal dystonia and related hyperkinetic movement disorders. The main advantages of this method are low rate of complications, reversibility and efficacy in reducing spastic hypertonia or abnormal movements. The treatment is safe but it needs to be repeated periodically and some patients do not obtain effective control of the symptoms due to the onset of secondary immune resistance. For this reason we have selected 45 cases already in treatment with botulinum toxin that have been switched to incobotulinumtoxinA. At a median follow up of 8 months the greatest part of the patients, twenty-six (57.7%) remained clinically unchanged; fourteen (31.1%) had a significant clinical improvement and five (11.1%) worsened. We did not observe any general or injection site complications.


Focal dystonia; Botulinum toxin; Hemifacial spasm; Immune response

Cite the article

Tommaselli M, Tacconi L, Mazzon G, Manganotti P. Focal Dystonia and Botulinum Toxin: Our Experience with IncobotulinumtoxinA. Clin Surg. 2019; 4: 2365.

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