Journal Basic Info

  • Impact Factor: 1.995**
  • H-Index: 8
  • ISSN: 2474-1647
  • DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647
**Impact Factor calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Please contact us for any more details.

Major Scope

  •  Bariatric Surgery
  •  Transplant Surgery
  •  Obstetrics Surgery
  •  Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  •  Endocrine Surgery
  •  Colon and Rectal Surgery
  •  Ophthalmic Surgery
  •  Neurological Surgery


Citation: Clin Surg. 2017;2(1):1518.Review Article | Open Access

Vitamin D Pathway in Endocrine-Related Cancer: Literature Review

Xu J, Simental AA, Munir I, De Leon M and Khan S

Department of Otolaryngology, Riverside University Health System (RUHS), USA
Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Riverside University Health System (RUHS), USA
Center for Health Disparities & Molecular Medicine, CA, USA
Department of Biochemistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
Department of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University Health, CA, USA

*Correspondance to: Salma Khan 

 PDF  Full Text DOI: 10.25107/2474-1647.1518


Since the seminal 1980 paper by Garland et al linking vitamin D (VitD) to cancer, abundant studies have now shown evidence that VitD can exert a wide range of oncoprotective actions. Preclinical cancer studies link VitD with modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, angiogenesis, invasive and metastatic potential, apoptosis, and epigenetic control via miRNA. New synthetic VitD analogs have also demonstrated even more potent tumor suppressive effects. However, conflicting studies show that varying serum concentrations of VitD and its analogs can greatly affect the potency of its anti-cancer role, where too little exerts no influence and too much may even induce cancer. In addition, lower serum VitD can still be compensated by stronger VDR activity and lower DBP activity. This controversy sparked more studies in how upstream effects on VitD and its activation pathway can modulate its downstream anticancer effects. The sheer vast amount of evidence linking VitD to cancer since its first discovery 30 years can be overwhelming, making it difficult to see the big picture. The objective of this literature review is to offer an up-todate and cohesive view of both the downstream and upstream associations of VitD with cancer. The analysis will tie together all current evidence to compare the similarities and differences of how VitD affects major types of endocrine-related cancers, in the hopes of presenting a concise visual for future preclinical studies in this now vast field of research.


Vitamin D; Endocrine-related cancer; Oncoprotective actions

Cite the article

Xu J, Simental AA, Munir I, De Leon M, Khan S. Vitamin D Pathway in Endocrine-Related Cancer: Literature Review. Clin Surg. 2017; 2: 1518.

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