Letter to Editor

''Gut Microbiota: It is an Individual Identity Card and It’s Like Our Fingerprint. Who is Big Boss?''

Mithat Gunaydin*
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Private Avicenna Hospital, Turkey

*Corresponding author: Mithat Gunaydin, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Private Avicenna Hospital, Istanbul/Turkey

Published: 06 Dec, 2017
Cite this article as: Gunaydin M. ''Gut Microbiota: It is an Individual Identity Card and It’s Like Our Fingerprint. Who is Big Boss?''. Clin Surg. 2017; 2: 1806.


Microbiota; Microbiome; Gut; Intestine

Letter to Editor

I want to share my thoughts about the current topic ''gut microbiota'', the ''second brain''. Thousands of years ago Hippocrates revealed the importance of the presence of microbiota by saying “all diseases start in the gut”. Our gut microbiota contains tens of trillions of microorganisms, including at least 1000 different species of known bacteria with more than 3 million genes which is 150 times more than the human genes. This structure is regarded as an organ of about two kilograms and is called ''gut microbiota'' [1,2]. Bacteria immediately settle into the baby's digestive system. The first settling bacteria are recognized by the immune system. Therefore, first nutrition is very important. Nutrition of babies must begin with breastfeeding [3]. The gut microbiota content changes after chronic diseases of the digestive system, infections and antibiotic use. The alteration of the healthy, beneficial microorganisms in the bowel in favor of harmful microorganisms and the impairment of the ideal balance have been associated with numerous acute and chronic diseases [2,4-6]. Microbiota plays an important role in preventing the formation of many diseases in many ways; by making the environment acidic, by preventing the colonization of pathogen bacteria, by preventing inflammation formation in the intestinal mucosa and by preventing toxic products from intestines passing into bloodstream [7]. There is a lot of research about microbiota and every work is a part of the puzzle. The global market for prebiotic and probiotic products reach 100 billion dollars. Are they imposition of the manufacturers? Shall we listen to the manufacturers or shall we listen to the voice of our second brain for a healthy life? I think we must live in peace with our microbiota for a healthy life. I think our intestinal microbiota is the big boss of our bodies.


  1. Thursby E, Juge N. Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochem J. 2017;474(11):1823-36.
  2. Ho J TK, Chan GCF, Li J CB. Systemic effects of gut microbiota and its relationship with disease and modulation. BMC Immunol. 2015;16:21.
  3. Wall R, Ross RP, Ryan CA, Hussey S, Murphy B, Fitzgerald GF, et al. Role of Gut Microbiota in Early Infant Development. Clin Med Pediatr. 2009;3:45-54.
  4. Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LC, Finlay BB. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2010;90(3):859-904.
  5. Singh RK, Chang HW, Yan D, Lee KM, Ucmak D, Wong K, et al. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. J Transl Med. 2017;15(1):73.
  6. Kamada N, Seo SU, Chen GY, Nunuez G. Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013;13:321-35.
  7. Kristensen NB, Bryrup T, Allin KH, Nielsen T, Hansen TH, Pedersen O. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Genome Med. 2016;8(1):52.