Clin Surg | Volume 5, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Standards for Case Reports Regarding Gummy Smile Treatment in Literature: A Systematic Review

Aous Dannan*

Department of Periodontology, The International University for Science and Technology (IUST), Syria

*Correspondance to: Aous Dannan 

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Background: Excessive gingival display, also known as gummy smile, represents a serious aesthetic problem that could be related to various etiological factors. In terms of case reports, several treatment methods are demonstrated in the literature as solutions for such issue. Aim: This Pubmed-based systematic review aimed at finding out whether case reports in literature follow regular standards in demonstrating gummy smile cases. Methods: An online search of case reports in PubMed during the last ten years was conducted using specific terms in combination: Gingival-display or gummy-smile or asymmetric-smile or gingivalexposure and Treatment. Exclusion criteria were carefully followed. Results: Thirty-three papers were included in the review. The degree of gingival exposure that was considered as gummy smile varied among papers. The most common factor for the origination of gummy smile was related to mixed oro-facial/orthognathic/ or undefined skeletal factors. Pure orthodontic treatment and orthognathic corrective surgeries were the most methods of choice for gummy smile correction. There was no consensus regarding how to express the success or improvement of cases after treatment, and no standards for setting a follow-up period seemed to be appointed. Conclusion: There is no consensus on how to demonstrate a case report dealing with gummy smile treatment. A unified form with standard rationales when case reports regarding gummy smile are to be conducted is utterly needed.


Dannan A. Standards for Case Reports Regarding Gummy Smile Treatment in Literature: A Systematic Review. Clin Surg. 2020; 5: 2865..

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