Clin Surg | Volume 4, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Prevalence of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Injuries and Symptoms in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

Cesar Dario Oliveira Miranda, Carlos Henrique Fernandes*, Lia Miyamoto Meirelles, Benno Ejnisman, Moises Cohen and Flávio Faloppa

Federal University of São Paulo, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences Applied to Sport and Physical Activity at Professional Master’s Level, São Paulo, Brazil

*Correspondance to: Carlos Henrique Fernandes 

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Introduction: Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art that originated in China and was brought to Brazil, where it became very popular and developed into a style known as Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ). Growth in the number of BJJ practitioners has been accompanied by a consequent increase in BJJ injuries.
Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize upper-limb Musculoskeletal Injuries and Symptoms (MSISs) in BJJ athletes.
Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2017 and January 2018. Male BJJ athletes with a minimum of 6 months of BJJ practice and at least a blue belt rank were enrolled. Athletes who were at the white belt level, female, or less than 18 years of age were excluded from the study. Participants completed a questionnaire that collected information about their personal characteristics and BJJ training profile, and then were subjected to a physical examination of the upper limbs. MSIS data were recorded on a spreadsheet.
Results: A total of 200 male BJJ practitioners were evaluated, of which 150 (75.0%) reported at least one upper limb MSIS. Of a total of 679 identified MSISs, 369 (54.3%) were in the hand and/or wrist, 233 (34.3%) were in the shoulder, and 77 (11.3%) were in the elbow. Logistic regression adjusted to have at least one injury indicated that greater age, years practicing BJJ, number of training hours per day, and number of trainings days per week as well as a black belt rank were significant risk factors. Notably, black belt rank increased the chances of injury by 5.57 times [95% Confidence Interval (IC): 1.13-27.58; p=0.04].
Conclusion: Age, years practicing BJJ, number of training hours per day and days per week, and an advanced training level are associated with upper-limb MSIS prevalence.


Affections; Upper Extremity; Brazilian jiu-jitsu


Oliveira Miranda CD, Fernandes CH, Meirelles LM, Ejnisman B, Cohen M, Faloppa F. Prevalence of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Injuries and Symptoms in Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Athletes. Clin Surg. 2019; 4: 2339.

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