Dia Kamel1, James Frame2, James D. Frame3* and Thomas Harle4
1Department of Histopathology, Broomfield Hospital, UK
2Department of Plastic Surgery, Anglia Ruskin University, UK
3Department of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Anglia Ruskin University, UK
4Fourth State Medicine Ltd., Surrey University, UK
Ionised gas or plasma is often described as the fourth state of matter since it can be produced from an electrically neutral gas which has been fully or partially ionised. The resulting mixture of free electrons, positively charged ions and un-ionized gas possess a rich chemistry and may be used to transport thermal energy. Plasma has thus found applications in such diverse fields as spacecraft propulsion, magnetic confinement fusion, silicon etching, and surface treatment and of course biomedicine.
Plasma; Ionised gas; Thermal injury; ‘Frame’ cells; Burn depth; Dermis; Skin
Kamel D, Frame J, Frame JD, Harle T. Histological Findings from Controlled Application of a Thermal Plasma to Human Skin. Clin Surg. 2016; 1: 1176.